An internal combustion engine requires three key ingredients to operate: air, fuel and spark. A spark plug is a critical engine component that provides the spark that ignites the air-fuel mixture that drives an engine.
A spark plug operates by directing electrical current to flow through a centre electrode, forming a spark across an electrode (or air) gap, completing the circuit to a ground electrode. The centre electrode is surrounded by a ceramic insulator which is non-conductive preventing current leakage and ensuring electricity flows in the desired direction.
NGK Spark Plug Anatomy.
NGK Part Numbering System.